Periodontology or Periodontics is the speciality of dentistry that studies supporting structures of teeth, diseases and conditions that affect them. The supporting tissues are known as the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), alveolar bone, cementum and the periodontal ligament.
Infection is the most common cause affecting the periodontium. The infections are caused by the accumulation of hard deposits clinging to the teeth. The deposits are saturated with disease causing bacteria resulting in the infection of tissues, surrounding and supporting the teeth. These infections can lead to bleeding gums to early loss of teeth.
Various surgical and non-surgical periodontal treatments are available. In the early stages of periodontal disease, non-surgical periodontal treatment is appropriate. In case of great deal of bone loss, surgical periodontal treatment is required.